St138 Chemistry 1 Vce Units 1 And 2 & E Book Plus + Study On

Author: Neale Taylor
Homepage_9780730321415

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Barcode 9780730321415
9780730321415

Description

Chemistry 1 VCE Units 1 and 2 with eBookPLUS and studyON VCE Chemistry Units 1 and 2 provides comprehensive coverage of the new VCE Study Design for 2016-2021. It includes Jacaranda's unique exam preparation tool, studyON, which has been fully integrated with the text to maximise every student's opportunity for exam success.Features and benefits* New HTML5 interactivities and videos are available. These are designed to engage, excite and enhance understanding by bringing difficult concepts to life.* The theory is written by highly experienced and successful teachers with a proven and fundamental understanding of how students learn and succeed in exams. * Sample problems throughout the chapter to improve student understanding by stepping through worked solutions.* Revision questions throughout the chapter check and challenge students understanding.* A wide range of graded end-of-chapter questions and chapter reviews.* studyON VCE Chemistry 1 and 2 is fully integrated with the student text. studyON is Jacaranda's unique study, revision and exam preparation tool. Students can rely on Jacaranda's dedicated customer service and support.This resource is a hard-copy student text that includes the eBookPLUS and studyON VCE Chemistry Units 1 and 2.studyON for Units 1 and 2 is a comprehensive study, revision and exam preparation tool that delivers proven learning outcomes. Features and benefits* Sit exams: VCAA exam-style questions along with marking guides. Students receive instant feedback and can track their results at a concept, topic or whole-course level.* Concepts: Concept summary screens provide concise, in-depth explanations supported by relevant examples.* Read more: Hyperlinks direct students to more information in the Jacaranda eBookPLUS.

Table of contents

How to use this book viii About eBookPLUS and studyON x Acknowledgements xi UNIT 1 Area of study 1 Chapter 1 Atomic structure 2 Atoms 3 The structure of atoms 3 A matter of size 5 Responsible use of nanotechnology 9 Representing atoms 9 Isotopes 10 Exciting electrons 11 Bohr's energy levels 12 Electron configuration 13 Erwin Schrodinger � the quantum-mechanical model of an atom 15 Electron configuration 17 Chromium and copper � atypical electron configurations 19 Chapter review 21 Chapter 2 The periodic table 25 Classification of the elements 26 Dmitri Mendeleev 27 Organisation of the periodic table 28 Periods and groups in the periodic table 29 Electron configuration and blocks of elements in the periodic table 29 Metals and non-metals in the periodic table 32 Patterns in the periodic table 33 Periodic trends in atomic size 33 Periodic trends in ionisation energy 34 Periodic trends in electronegativity 35 Periodic trends in metallic characteristics 36 Periodic trends in oxidising and reducing strength 37 Chapter review 38 Chapter 3 Ionic bonding 42 Introducing chemical bonds 43 Electron configuration and stability 43 Types of chemical bond 44 From atoms to ions 44 Ionic bonding 47 Structure and properties of ionic substances 49 Ionic lattices 49 Connecting properties of ionic compounds to structure 51 Naming ionic compounds 52 Formulas of binary ionic compounds 53 Ions of variable charge 55 Polyatomic ions 56 Uses of ionic compounds 58 Why do athletes take sports drinks? 58 Hydrated ionic compounds 59 Growing ionic crystals 60 Chapter review 61 Chapter 4 Metallic bonding 65 Metals 66 Properties of metals 66 Structure of metals 66 Metallic properties and lattice structure 68 Alloys 69 Specific properties and uses of s-block metals 73 Specific properties and uses of p-block metals 74 Specific properties and uses of d-block elements 74 Other models that explain metallic properties 76 Modifying metals 77 Modifying a metal by work hardening 77 Modifying a metal using heat 77 Coating metals 78 Surface protection 78 Reactivity of metals 79 Reactivity of metals and the periodic table 80 Metallic nanomaterials 80 Connecting chemistry to society 82 Titanium bicycles � a material advantage? 82 Extraction of metals 83 Extraction of iron 83 Impacts of iron production on society, the economy and the environment 84 Chapter review 86 Chapter 5 Quantifying chemistry 91 Measuring atoms 92 Measuring masses of atoms 92 Relative atomic mass 93 Counting atoms 94 The mole concept 94 Molar mass (M) 95 Compounds and molar mass 95 Changing moles to numbers of particles 96 Changing mass to moles and moles to mass 98 Percentage composition 100 Calculating percentage composition of hydrated compounds 101 Empirical formulas 102 Molecular formulas 104 Chapter review 106 Area of study 2 Chapter 6 Covalent bonding 110 Introducing covalent bonds 111 Covalent molecular substances 111 A theory for the structure of covalent molecular substances 111 The molecule 111 What is covalent bonding? 112 Electron dot diagrams 113 Electron dot diagrams for atoms 113 Electron dot diagrams for molecular elements 115 Electron dot diagrams for molecular compounds 116 Molecular models 117 Predicting molecular shape 118 Naming covalent compounds 120 Molecular elements 120 Molecular compounds 120 Electronegativity 121 Non-polar and polar covalent bonds 122 Non-polar and polar molecules 123 Intermolecular attractions 124 Dispersion forces 125 Dipole-dipole interactions 126 Hydrogen bonding 126 Effects of hydrogen bonding on the properties of water 127 Properties of molecular substances in relation to structure 128 Chapter review 130 Chapter 7 Networks and nanomaterials 135 Carbon 136 Same but different 136 Covalent network lattices 136 Covalent layer lattices 138 Fullerenes 139 Comparing structures 141 Bonding and modelling 141 Bonding 141 Lattice structures 142 Identifying the bonding in different substances 143 Properties 143 Composition 144 Chapter review 146 Chapter 8 Organic chemistry 152 Organic chemistry 153 What are organic compounds? 153 Hydrocarbons 154 Properties of hydrocarbons 154 Reactions of alkanes 156 Structural isomers 156 The alkenes 157 Reactions 157 The alkynes 158 Reactions 158 Cyclic hydrocarbons 158 Naming organic substances 159 Rules for naming hydrocarbons 160 Condensed formulas 162 Functional groups 162 Alcohols 162 Carboxylic acids 163 Where do hydrocarbons come from? 166 Petroleum 166 Refining crude oil 166 Cracking 168 Chapter review 170 Chapter 9 Polymers 175 Polymers 176 The first polymers 176 What is a polymer? 177 Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers 177 Polymer manufacture 177 Addition polymerisation 178 Changing the properties of linear polymers 179 Extent of branching 180 Arrangement of side branches in linear polymers 181 Degree of crystallinity 182 Length of polymer chains 182 Addition of plasticisers 182 Additives 183 Commonly used polymers 183 Addition polymers 183 Rubber 183 Polymer selection 185 Advantages and disadvantages of using polymers 185 Recycling 186 Chapter review 190 Area of study 3 Chapter 10 Investigating and reporting 194 Research investigations 195 Planning 195 Presentation of findings 196 Practical investigations 196 Procedure 197 Writing your report 197 General safety rules 198 Risk assessments 198 Working with figures 199 Scientific notation 199 Significant figures 200 How do we count significant figures? 201 Significant figures and calculations 201 Errors and uncertainties 202 Effective study techniques to improve your results 203 The exam 204 Using reading time effectively 204 Getting the best results in writing time 204 Calculations 204 UNIT 2 Area of study 1 Chapter 11 Connecting chemical reactions and equations 206 Chemical changes 207 Chemical equations 207 Balancing chemical equations 209 Rules for balancing equations 210 Types of chemical reaction 211 Precipitation reactions 211 Acid-base and neutralisation reactions 213 Combustion reactions 214 Chemical reactions � by patterns 215 Chapter review 216 Chapter 12 Properties of water 219 Water � the life force 220 The physical properties of water 220 Latent heat 220 Specific heat capacity 222 Density 222 Electrical conductivity 224 Hydrogen bonding and the properties of water 224 Effects of hydrogen bonding on the properties of water 225 Water as a solvent 226 Solubility 226 Solubility of gases in water 227 Using water as a solvent 228 Mixing solutions 228 Precipitation reactions 229 Rules for solubility 230 Ionic equations 231 Writing ionic equations for precipitation reactions 231 Chapter review 233 Chapter 13 Reactions in water 237 Two new groups of reactions 238 Introducing acids and bases 238 Safety with acids and bases 238 The properties of acids 239 Reactions of acids 239 The properties of bases 240 The Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases 241 Ionisation and the production of the hydronium ion 242 Hydrolysis 242 Dissociation of bases 242 Neutralisation 243 Acid-base terms 244 Conjugate acid-base pairs 244 Polyprotic acids 244 Amphiprotic substances and ampholytes 244 Strengths of acids and bases 246 Strength versus concentration 248 The pH scale 248 Definition of pH 250 pH values of strong acids and bases 250 Dilution and pHâ 251 Relative strengths of acids and bases and pHâ 252 Measuring pH 253 Indicators 253 The pH meter 254 When acids cause trouble 255 Acid rain 255 Ocean acidification 256 Introducing redox reactions 256 What is oxidation-reduction? 257 Oxidants and reductants 258 An electron transfer view 258 Half-equations 260 Writing balanced half-equations for ions in aqueous solution 261 Summary of steps for balancing half-equations 263 The reactivity of metals 264 Corrosion 266 The wet corrosion of iron � an electrochemical process 266 Adverse effects of corrosion 268 Corrosion protection 268 Chapter review 271 Area of study 2 Chapter 14 Measuring solubility and concentration 280 Using water 281 Solubility of solids in water 282 Solubility curves 283 Crystallisation 284 Solubility of liquids and gases 286 The concentration of substances 286 Ways of expressing concentration 287 A special unit of concentration 292 The concentration of water 293 Calculating the concentration of ions in solution 293 Environmental issues 295 Micro-organisms 296 Eutrophication 296 Heavy metals 297 Water for drinking 297 Methods of desalination 298 Chapter review 301 Chapter 15 Analysing water for salts 305 What is chemical analysis? 306 Qualitative analysis 306 Quantitative analysis 306 Methods of chemical analysis 307 Deciding on an analytical method 307 Analysing water 308 Sources of salts in water 308 Sources of contaminants in water 310 Water sampling protocols 312 A closer look at analytical methods 312 Electrical conductivity 313 Colorimetry 313 UV-visible spectroscopy 315 Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) 315 Gravimetric analysis 317 Stoichiometry� calculations using balanced equations 318 What a balanced chemical equation tells us 318 What a chemical equation does not tell us 319 Mass-mass stoichiometry 320 Mass-concentration stoichiometry 323 Gravimetric analysis 325 Analysing for water content 326 Extending the gravimetric method 326 Examining sources of error 329 Chapter review 330 Chapter 16 Analysing water for organic compounds 338 Organic compounds in the environment 339 Some organic chemistry revisited 339 Naming 339 Solubility in water 339 What are organic compounds used for? 340 Persistent organic pollutants 340 How do organic contaminants enter water? 342 Analysing for organic substances 343 Principles of chromatography 343 High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 344 Interpreting the results from HPLC 345 HPLC at work 347 Oil spills 349 Effects of a marine oil spill 350 How are oil spills treated? 351 Chapter review 352 Chapter 17 Analysing water for acids and bases 357 Isn't water neutral? 358 How is water made acidic? 358 How is water made basic? 358 Sources of acids and bases found in water 359 Reasons for analysing 360 Analysing for acids and bases 361 Solution stoichiometry 361 Dilution 362 Acid-base titrations 364 Standard solutions 367 Volumetric techniques 367 The pipette 367 The burette 368 Volumetric flasks 368 Indicators 369 Total alkalinity 370 Examining sources of error 371 Chapter review 372 Practical investigations ONLINE ONLY 376 Answers 377 Glossary 399 Index 404 Periodic table of the elements 410